Brain and Nerve Surgery (Neurosurgery)
Neurosurgery, in other words, the treatment of brain and nerve diseases, tumors originating from or pressing on the brain and spinal cord tissue, as well as head and spinal cord injuries, especially lumbar and cervical hernia, brain vascular occlusions and brain hemorrhages, injuries in the vessels feeding the brain and spinal cord. It is the branch of science that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as aneurysms, that is, bubbles. It is the department that intervenes with surgical methods in diseases that affect many vital functions, such as narrowing of the neck vessels and diseases that develop during the formation of the nervous system in newborns, epilepsy that does not respond to drug treatment, and selected Parkinson's cases. The dictionary meaning of neurosurgery, derived from the words neuron and surgery, is "healing the wounds of the nervous system". In the brain and nerve diseases clinic, diseases seen in both adult and pediatric patient groups are diagnosed and treated. Physicians who work in the branch of science where many high-tech devices are used during surgical and microsurgical procedures receive five or six years of specialization training after 6 years of medical school education. Doctors who specialize in the field of neurosurgery, where the necessary diagnosis and treatment methods are applied by working together with neurology, neuroradiology and neuroanesthesia departments, are called neurosurgeons or neurosurgeons.
Since cerebrovascular diseases that are common in society are quite diverse, there are many diagnostic and treatment methods. Diseases frequently encountered in neurosurgery and conditions requiring intervention can be listed as follows:
• Stroke and paralysis due to cerebral vascular occlusion for various reasons
• Life-threatening aneurysms that appear as bubbles in the brain vessel and are sometimes accompanied by bleeding.
• Cerebral hemorrhage occurring in the brain tissue and membrane
• Carotid stenosis, also known as carotid artery occlusion or narrowing.
• Tumors in the brain and spinal cord
• Traumatic situations caused by accidents and injuries
• Waist and neck hernia
• Tumor and vascular diseases found in pediatric patients
• Brain stimulation applications for Parkinson's and similar patients
The majority of brain tumors are masses that grow and spread rapidly and uncontrollably within a limited area. There are two subtypes: primary and secondary. Primary brain tumors are tumors that threaten the life of the patient and arise from cells and structures in the brain. Although they rarely metastasize due to the structure of the brain, they are also observed to spread to other regions through the blood circulation and cerebrospinal fluid. In general, genetic and environmental factors play a role in its formation. Secondary brain tumors are tumors that start in any part of the body and spread to the brain. Especially colon, lung, kidney and pancreatic cancers cause brain tumor formation through blood circulation. Personality change can be observed in these patients. This type of tumor, which must be treated surgically, grows inside the skull, puts pressure on the tissues and disrupts blood circulation. Treatment methods vary depending on the patient's current condition and the location and type of the tumor. Brain tumor consists of four stages:
• Stage 1 are slow-growing tumors.
• Stage 2 are tumors that grow slowly but come into contact with nearby tissue.
• Stage 3 are tumors in which abnormal cells increase and thus damage healthy tissues.
• Stage 4 is the type of tumors that grow rapidly and spread rapidly to nearby tissue and create new vessels for this spread.
It is bleeding that occurs as a result of the rupture of the balloon-like structure formed by the weakening of the artery wall in the brain due to various reasons. This condition, which develops when blood leaks into the brain tissue and causes tissue damage, usually develops spontaneously or due to trauma. It manifests itself with symptoms such as sudden and severe headache, drowsiness, weakness, drowsiness, nausea and vomiting, loss of consciousness, difficulty in speaking and swallowing, loss of balance and vision. Bleeding anywhere in the skull is called intracranial, and bleeding within the brain tissue is called intracerebral hemorrhage. Causes of brain hemorrhage include high blood pressure, head trauma, aneurysm formation, kidney failure, vascular abnormalities, blood disorders, brain tumor, alcohol and drug use. In case of cerebral hemorrhage, where early treatment is very important, adequate oxygenation of the brain is essential. In most cases, surgical intervention is required.
It occurs as a result of obstruction of blood supply to the brain. If blood flow to the brain is blocked or completely stopped, cell death begins in the brain. As a result, brain damage may occur and it can also seriously endanger life. There are two different types: ischemic and hemorrhagic. While ischemic stroke is caused by a blood clot, hemorrhagic stroke is a condition that occurs when the brain is damaged as a result of a burst in one of the vessels feeding the brain due to high blood pressure. In addition, transient ischemic attack is a type of stroke that occurs as a result of temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain. Its symptoms do not last for a long time and usually develop suddenly. Drowsiness, fatigue, immobility or shifting of part of the face, dizziness, difficulty in speaking and understanding, and severe headaches may occur. Smoking and alcohol use, high blood pressure, obesity, high cholesterol and diabetes are among the causes of stroke. Depending on the cause of the stroke, the treatment method also varies. It can be treated with medication or surgery.